Papaya, scientifically known as carica papaya, is a highly significant tropical fruit. It possesses both nutritional and medicinal value. Unlike true trees, papaya is an herbaceous shrub that is susceptible to being uprooted by strong winds. Commercial varieties typically produce flowers around 2.5 months after planting, with fruit setting occurring 3.5 months after transplantation.

Fruit Maturation and Shape

The maturity of papaya fruits takes approximately 8.5 months from seed germination or 4 months from the formation of flower buds. The shape of the fruit is often determined by the sex of the flowers. Female flowers produce rounded fruits, while hermaphroditic flowers result in elongated pear-shaped fruits.


There are several major papaya varieties cultivated, including Honey Dew, Kiru, Mountain Solo, Sunset, and Waimando. The growth of these fruits has seen an increase in hot regions such as Machakos, Kitui, Makueni, and Kajiado areas.

Seed Production

Papaya plants are propagated through seeds. To ensure the desired characteristics, it is recommended to obtain seeds through controlled pollination. The outer fleshy layer of the seed coat, called the sarcotesta, is removed as it can inhibit germination. Properly dried seeds stored in sealed containers can remain viable for several years. The seeds are sown in small containers (such as tin cans, plastic bags, or paper cups) at a rate of 3-4 seeds per container.

To minimize losses caused by nematodes and damping-off fungi, it is essential to use sterilized soil. Germination usually takes 2-3 weeks, and seedlings are transplanted approximately 2 months after sowing. Fungicide and pesticide treatment is necessary to prevent attacks by pests and diseases.

Environmental Requirements

Papaya thrives in fertile soils with good drainage and a pH of around 6.5. Heavy clay and saline soils are not suitable for its growth. Strong winds, flooding, and prolonged droughts are also unfavorable conditions for papaya. The optimal temperature range for its cultivation is between 21 and 33 degrees Celsius.

Land Preparation

For papaya cultivation, it is recommended to space the plants at a distance of 2-2.5 meters between each plant and 2.5-3 meters between rows. This spacing allows for a plant density of 1000-3000 plants per hectare or 400-1200 plants per acre.


During planting, the seedlings should be slightly covered with soil in the holes after the planting area has been adequately watered to ensure disease-free planting. The plants should be staggered to ensure they receive sufficient sunlight. It is crucial not to disturb the roots during planting, and planting on molds or ridges is recommended.

Propagation through Tissue Culture

The use of tissue culture for propagating papaya plants is becoming increasingly popular due to its numerous advantages over traditional propagation methods. Tissue culture enables rapid production of disease-free plants. In Kenya, such plants are available from the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in Thika, as well as from several private companies.


Proper nutrition is essential for achieving high-quality fruit production throughout the year. Fertilizers should be applied around each plant, ensuring the use of chlorine-free options, as papaya is sensitive to chlorine. One week after transplanting, it is recommended to apply a high-phosphorus fertilizer. Additionally, applying approximately 60 grams of high-nitrogen fertilizer every week promotes healthy foliage and vigorous growth, resulting in high yields. At the flowering and fruit set stages, potassium-based fertilizers, such as Goldchance Multi Super K or Lavender Fruit & Flower, should be applied.

Weed Control

Weeds in papaya plantations can contribute to pest and disease problems. It is important to keep the field weed-free to minimize competition for nutrients. Herbicides like Catapult can be used, taking care to prevent contact with the plant.


Adequate water supply is crucial, especially during fruit set and development. Drip irrigation can be employed during dry spells, with each plant requiring approximately 23 liters of water per week.

Common Pests and Diseases


1. Bunchy Top Virus: This viral infection is transmitted by leafhoppers (Empoasca stevensii). Symptoms include oil streaks on the stem, yellowing of upper leaves, bunching, stunting of top leaves, and plant death.

2. Anthracnose: This fungal infection caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides initially appears as small round dark spots on ripening fruit. As the fruits ripen, the spots enlarge, forming circular sunken areas. Controlling this disease can be achieved by using Absolute at a rate of 10 grams per 20 liters.

3. Papaya Ring Spot Virus: This viral infection in papaya is spread by aphids. Affected leaves roll upwards, and mature papaya exhibits light green coloration with oily streaks. Controlling thrips and leafhoppers, which vector the viruses, can help reduce their spread using products like Lexus or Kingcode Elite® 50 EC.

4. Powdery Mildew: Characterized by a whitish powder on the leaf surface, powdery mildew reduces photosynthetic efficiency and leads to yellowing and leaf fall.

5. Damping Off and Root Rot: This damaging fungal infection caused by Pythium (Pythium aphardematum) results in stem and root rot, leading to yellowing, leaf and fruit drop, and eventual plant death. Proper sanitation and plant drenching procedures are necessary to ensure disease-free production.


1. Papaya Fruit Flies: Two species of fruit flies, Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis rosa, are known to attack papaya fruits in East Africa. The flies lay eggs in ripe fruits, causing rotting. Female fruit flies may lay eggs on green papayas, but the eggs often die due to the latex secretion upon puncturing. Developing larvae contribute to fruit deterioration. Fruit flies pose significant concerns for countries importing papayas.

2. Spider Mites: These mites attack the underside of papaya leaves, causing yellowing and discoloration that affects fruit quality. Spider mites are more prevalent during dry weather. Alonze 50 EC has proven to be effective in controlling spider mites.

3. Whiteflies: Whiteflies have emerged as a major threat to papaya farming. They attack the leaves, resulting in yellowing. Moreover, whiteflies cause honeydew formation and sooty mold, which negatively affect fruit quality, color, and taste.

4. Bugs: Various types of bugs can attack papaya plants. These bugs suck the plant sap, causing the plants to turn yellow. They also leave silvery marks and white deposits on leaves and fruits, diminishing their quality. Mealybugs pose a significant threat in papaya production.


The flavor and taste of the ripened fruit are determined by its stage of physiological development at the time of harvest. Traces of yellow color on the fruit indicate readiness for harvesting. While early harvesting extends the fruit’s post-harvest life, it may result in abnormal taste and flavor. Early-harvested fruits also tend to shrivel and suffer chilling injuries when refrigerated.

The fruit is either twisted until the stalk snaps off or cut using a sharp knife. Yields per tree can vary from 30 to 150 fruits annually, equivalent to 35 to 50 tons of fruit per hectare per year. Although a papaya plantation can remain productive for over 10 years, the economically viable period is typically limited to the first 3 to 4 years. Thus, it is advisable to renew the plantation every 4 years.

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