Anthracnose refers to a collection of fungal infections that arise from various types of fungi, primarily from the genus Colletotrichum Spp. This condition has the ability to impact a diverse array of plants, such as cereals, legumes, vegetables, perennial crops, and tree fruits. It tends to proliferate rapidly in periods of rainfall. The identification and symptoms associated with anthracnose are as follows:
The infection has the potential to occur on any section of the plant.
- Initially, the infection manifests on the leaves as small, irregular spots that range in color from yellow to brown. As the severity of the infection advances, these spots darken and expand, eventually encompassing the entire leaf. In severe cases, the infection can lead to the complete loss of leaves on the affected plant.
- During the early stages of the infection, the flowers exhibit small and distinct black specks or spots on the panicle. As the infection progresses, clusters of flowers become inky black and wither. Eventually, the panicle becomes highly susceptible to disintegration, leading to significant damage.
- On fruits, the infection initially presents as small, sunken spots with a dark color. As the infection advances, these spots spread, ultimately resulting in the decay of the fruit. During periods of moisture, pink spore masses form in the center of these sunken spots. The infection can also lead to the formation of mummified fruits. The presence of these spots on fruits significantly diminishes their quality and overall produce.
- In the case of stem infections, affected stems exhibit diebacks and display discoloration. Occasionally, cankers may also be observed. Dieback occurs when severe, elongated, and blackened lesions develop on the stems, leading to the apical death of the plant. Anthracnose infection has the potential to cause the demise of the tips of young, developing plants.
The life cycle of Anthracnose diseases primarily consists of four stages: spore production on a susceptible host, dispersion of the spores, penetration into the host tissue, and the initiation of an infection process within the cells. Subsequently, symptoms start to manifest and develop.
The dispersal of spores occurs through various means, such as water, air currents, insects, or any other form of contact.
Anthracnose diseases primarily spread through seeds, but they can also be transmitted through infected plant parts. The pathogen has the ability to persist on or within seeds, crop residues, and weed hosts. Effective management and control strategies for these diseases are essential.
1. To manage Anthracnose diseases on susceptible plant hosts or cultivars, as well as in highly conducive environments, periodic application of fungicides through sprays is necessary. It is crucial to ensure proper timing and frequency of these applications to achieve effective control.
To prevent the development of resistance, the following fungicides can be utilized interchangeably to combat Anthracnose.
RANSOM 600WP 10g/20l, DOMAIN 250EC 15ml/20l, DUCASSE 250EC 20ml/20l, MEGAPRODE LOCK 525WP 20g/20l and CHARIOT 500SC 20ml/20l.
2. Achieving the growth of robust seedlings is possible by implementing effective nursery management techniques.
To ensure the development of healthy and pest-free seedlings, it is recommended to apply a solution consisting of 100g of PYRAMID 700WP, 10g of LOYALTY 700WDG, and 20ml of OPTIMIZER mixed with 20 liters of water through drenching.
3. Ensuring a sufficient nutrient supply to plants involves the application of appropriate basal and foliar fertilizers, which enhances the plant’s immunity and overall health.
When applying basal fertilizer, it is recommended to mix 50kg of fertilizer with 1-2kg of HUMIPOWER. Incorporating HUMIPOWER offers various advantages, including enhanced nutrient absorption by the plants.
Foliar fertilizers should be applied on a weekly basis, taking into consideration the growth rate of the plants.
The recommended fertilizers for foliar application at different growth stages are as follows:
- GOLDCHANCE range should be applied at a rate of 50g per 20 liters of water.
- LAVENDER, which is rich in Phosphorus and Potassium, should be applied at a rate of 20ml per 20 liters of water.
- FERRARI GOLD should be applied at a rate of 30ml per 20 liters of water to provide a calcium supply.
- OPTIMIZER, which stimulates growth, manages stress, and improves fruit set, among other benefits, should be applied at a rate of 10ml per 20 liters of water.
4. Weed management is crucial as weeds compete with crops for essential resources such as nutrients, space, and water. This competition weakens the crops, making them more vulnerable to diseases. Additionally, weeds can serve as hosts for various diseases.
For effective weed control in different situations, the following herbicides are recommended:
- CLAMPDOWN 480SL, applied at a rate of 200ml per 20 liters of water, effectively clears all types of weeds in non-cropped fields, making it highly suitable for land preparation.
Selective herbicides are advisable for specific crops:
- COMMANDER 240EC, at a rate of 50ml per 20 liters of water, is recommended for onion and cabbage crops.
- HOTLINE 450SC, at a rate of 50ml per 20 liters of water, is suitable for carrot and bean crops.
- AGROMINE 860SL, at a rate of 120ml per 20 liters of water, is recommended for maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum crops.
- PREDATOR 340EC, at a rate of 20ml per 20 liters of water, is ideal for onion crops.
In maize plantations, when the crop reaches waist-high, HURRICANE 200SL, applied at a rate of 150ml per 20 liters of water, is commonly used as a super non-selective contact herbicide between the rows.
5. Correct cultural practices encompass techniques such as crop rotation, maintaining field hygiene, ensuring appropriate plant spacing, conducting soil tests, and employing resistant cultivars, among others.
Important: When applying foliar sprays, it is essential to mix 3ml of INTEGRA per 20 liters of the product to be used. This enhances the effectiveness of the product.